Guglielmi, V., Dalle Grave, R., Leonetti, F., & Solini, A.


Obesity is a heterogeneous condition which results from complex interactions among sex/gender, sociocultural, environmental, and biological factors. Obesity is more prevalent in women in most developed countries, and several clinical and psychological obesity complications show sex-specific patterns. Females differ regarding fat distribution, with males tending to store more visceral fat, which is highly correlated to increased cardiovascular risk. Although women are more likely to be diagnosed with obesity and appear more motivated to lose weight, as confirmed by their greater representation in clinical trials, males show better outcomes in terms of body weight and intra-abdominal fat loss and improvements in the metabolic risk profile. However, only a few relatively recent studies have investigated gender differences in obesity, and sex/gender is rarely considered in the assessment and management of the disease. This review summarizes the evidence of gender differences in obesity prevalence, contributing factors, clinical complications, and psychological challenges. In addition, we explored gender differences in response to obesity treatments in the specific context of new anti-obesity drugs.

Guglielmi, V., Dalle Grave, R., Leonetti, F., & Solini, A. (2024). Female obesity: clinical and psychological assessment toward the best treatment. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 15. doi:10.3389/fendo.2024.1349794 Full Text